Resources & Downloads

Sustainability Metrics


Resources & Downloads
Sustainability Metrics

  • Certain figures in the following tables have been restated from previous sustainability reports to reflect new information or changes to tracking systems and/or reporting practices.
  • All currency-related values are reported in Canadian dollars, except for community investment numbers and initiatives, which are reported in Canadian and U.S. dollars.
 

About CP

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Scale of the organization

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Direct economic value generated and distributed

SASB 000.A
000.A Number of carloads transported

SASB 000.B
000.B Number of intermodal units transported

SASB 000.D
000.D Revenue ton miles

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SASB 000.A
SASB 000.B
SASB 000.D
Economic Impact Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Economic Value Generated
Total Revenues1 $ Millions 6,620 6,712 6,232 6,554 7,316
Canadian Entities $ Millions 4,655 4,662 4,473 4,667 5,232
U.S. Entities $ Millions 1,965 2,050 1,759 1,887 2,084
Economic Value Distributed
Total Operating Expenses2 $ Millions 4,418 4,094 3,821 4,035 4,485
Canadian Entities $ Millions 3,221 2,898 2,706 2,816 3,199
U.S. Entities $ Millions 1,197 1,196 1,115 1,219 1,286
Compensation & Benefits3 $ Millions 1,489 1,441 1,356 1,309 1,468
Capital Expenditures4 $ Millions 1,476 1,536 1,205 1,366 1,574
Payments to Providers of Capital5 $ Millions 2,541 3,306 1,932 1,121 1890
Payments to Government6 $ Millions 320 279 438 546 442
Operational Metrics
Revenue Ton-Miles7 Millions 149,849 145,257 135,952 142,540 154,207
Gross Ton-Miles8 Millions 272,862 263,344 242,694 252,195 275,362
Carloads Transported 1,000 Carloads 2,684 2,628 2,525 2,634 2,740
Intermodal Units Transported 1,000 Units 974 972 976 997 1,026
Train Miles Travelled Thousands 36,252 34,064 30,373 30,632 32,312

Employees

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Information on employees and other workers

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Occupational health and safety management system

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Average hours of training per year per employee

SASB 000.E
000.E Number of employees

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SASB 000.E
Workforce Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Employees9 # Employees 14,255 12,817 11,653 12,163 12,770
Canada # Employees 10,701 9,769 8,970 9,424 9,951
U.S. # Employees 3,554 3,048 2,683 2,739 2,819
Women # Employees 1,303 1,216 1,092 1,156 1,213
Men # Employees 12,952 11,601 10,561 11,007 11,557
Unionized Employees # Employees 10,799 9,592 8,758 9,171 9,613
Non-Unionized Employees # Employees 3,456 3,225 2,895 2,992 3,157
Total Full-Time Employees # Employees 14,091 12,738 11,621 12,121 12,713
Women # Employees 1,276 1,197 1,086 1,146 1,206
Men # Employees 12,815 11,541 10,535 10,975 11,507
Total Temporary Employees10 # Employees 156 70 23 41 56
Women # Employees 19 13 4 9 6
Men # Employees 137 57 19 32 50
Total Part-Time Employees11 # Employees 8 9 9 1 1
Women # Employees 8 6 2 1 1
Men # Employees 0 3 7 0 0
Total Contractors12 # Employees 130 82 45 79 23
Training
Training – Union Staff Avg. Hours /Employee 31 33 28 40 41
Training – Management Staff13 Avg. Hours /Employee 43 32 30 49 67
Representation by Health & Safety Committee % Employees 100 100 100 100 100

Governance & Ethics

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Governance structure

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Composition of the highest governance body and its committees

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Diversity of governance bodies and employees

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Board of Directors Composition14 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of Directors # Directors 12 8 10 9 10
Percent Independence15 % Independent Directors 92 75 80 89 90
Average Age Years 62 58 60 60 61
Average Tenure Years 3.4 2.6 2.4 2.6 3.5
Canada16 % Directors 50 50 60 56 50
U.S.16 % Directors 50 50 40 44 50
Visible Minorities  % Directors 0 0 0 11 10
Women % Directors 25 25 40 44 40
Men  % Directors 75 75 60 56 60
Under 30 Years Old  % Directors 0 0 0 0 0
30–50 Years Old  % Directors 8 38 20 22 20
Over 50 Years Old  % Directors 92 62 80 78 80
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Communication and training about anti-corruption policies and procedures

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Ethics Training Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
CP Code of Business Ethics Training17 # Employees 2,475 3,208 2,739 1,898 3,313
1 Canadian entities refers to Canadian Pacific. U.S. entities refers to SOO, DM&E and D&H. Total revenues includes all freight and non-freight revenue. Freight revenues are generated from goods or property transported. Non-freight revenues are generated from leasing certain assets; other arrangements, including logistical services and contracts with passenger service operators; and switching fees.
2 Expenses for Canadian entities refers to Canadian Pacific. Expenses for U.S. entities refers to SOO, DM&E and D&H. Changes in freight volumes generally contribute to corresponding changes in freight revenues and certain variable expenses, such as fuel, equipment rents and crew costs.
3 Compensation and benefits includes employee wages, salaries, fringe benefits and stock-based compensation. 2016 and 2017 comparative year figures have been restated for the retrospective adoption of ASU 2017-07.
4 Capital expenditures are additions to properties or operating expenses. Capital expenditures includes but is not limited to enhancements to track infrastructure, investments in locomotives and freight cars, and information systems. CP incurs expenditures to expand and enhance its rail network, rolling stock and other infrastructure. These expenditures are aimed at improving efficiency and safety of our operations. Such investments are also an integral part of the Company's multi-year capital program and support growth initiatives.
5 Payment to providers of capital includes dividends paid to shareholders, interest paid to shareholders, interest paid to debtholders, and payments for share repurchases less issuance of shares.
6 Payments to government includes income tax paid and property tax.
7 Revenue ton-miles (RTMs) is defined as the movement of one revenue-producing ton of freight over a distance of one mile. RTMs measure the relative weight and distance of rail freight moved by the Company.
8 Gross ton-miles (GTMs) refers to the movement of one ton of train weight over one mile. GTMs are calculated by multiplying total train weight by the distance the train moved. Total train weight comprises the weight of the freight cars, their contents and any inactive locomotives. An increase in GTMs indicates additional workload.
9 An employee is defined by the Company as an individual currently engaged in full-time, part-time or fixed-term employment with CP. Total employee count is based on total number of employees as at Dec.31 of the reporting year. Decrease of total employees between 2014–2016 is primarily due to strong operational performance, natural attrition and efficient resource management planning. 2017–2018 increase of total number of employees is in line with current and expected growth in business volumes.
10 Temporary employee refers to seasonal or fixed-term individuals. All temporary employees were located in Canada between 2014–2018.
11 Part-time employee refers to individuals who work between 50–90 percent of the full 40-hour work week. All part-time employees are located in Canada.
12 CP does not currently monitor workforce-related metrics for contractors.
13 Training for management staff refers to non-union employees, which includes senior management and management staff.
14 Board of Directors composition is reported as of Dec. 31 for all reporting years.
15 The Board has adopted standards for director independence based on criteria of the NYSE, SEC and CSA. The Board annually conducts, through a combination of questionnaires, biographical reviews and discussions, a comprehensive assessment of all business and other relationships and interests of each director vis-à-vis the Corporation and its subsidiaries, and has determined that each director, except for Keith Creel, is independent of the Corporation in accordance with the standards for independence established by the NYSE, and NI 58-101 Disclosure of Governance Practices, and that each member of the Audit Committee meets the additional independence standards established for audit committee members under Section 10A(m)(3) and Rule 10A-3(b)(1) of the Exchange Act, and NI 52-110 Audit Committees. Keith Creel is not independent by virtue of the fact that he is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation.
16 Canada and U.S. metric is calculated based on each director’s country of residence.
17 The Code of Business Ethics applies to everyone at CP and our subsidiaries: directors, officers, employees (unionized and non-unionized) and contractors. All non-unionized employees are to review the Code of Business Ethics annually. Unionized employees review the Code of Business Ethics every three years. Total employees trained in some reporting years may be higher than total employees at Dec. 31 as the reported figure includes active and non-active employees trained during the reporting year.

Safety

Safety Culture

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Work-related injuries

SASB 320a.1
320a.1 (1) Total recordable incident rate (TRIR), (2) fatality rate, and (3) near miss frequency rate (NMFR)

403-9
SASB 320a.1
Work-Related Injuries1,2 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Employee Hours Worked Thousands 34,117 31,414 26,779 26,828 28,151
Total Recordable Injury Rate (TRIR)3 Injury Rate * 3.27 3.10 3.25 3.14
FRA Personal Injury Rate Frequency4 Injury Rate 1.68 1.84 1.67 1.65 1.47
Women Injury Rate * * 0 1.40 0.92
Men Injury Rate * * 1.75 1.65 1.52
Contractors5 # FRA Injuries * * 26 30 34
Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate6 Injury Rate * * * 1.12 0.97
Canada Injury Rate * * * 1.00 0.87
U.S. Injury Rate * * * 1.53 1.37
Women Injury Rate * * * 0.86 0.67
Men Injury Rate * * * 1.15 1.00
Lost Time Due to Injury Avg. Lost Days Per Incident * * * 102 85
Canada Avg. Lost Days Per Incident * * * 49 58
U.S. Avg. Lost Days Per Incident * * * 224 154
Women Avg. Lost Days Per Incident * * * 39 56
Men Avg. Lost Days Per Incident * * * 107 87
Fatalities Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Employee Fatalities # Fatalities 0 0 1 2 3
Contract Worker Fatalities7 # Fatalities 0 1 1 1 0

Public Safety & Emergency Preparedness

SASB 540a.1
540a.1 Number of accidents and incidents

SASB 540a.2
540a.2 Number of (1) accident releases and (2) non-accident releases (NARs)

SASB 540a.3
540a.3 Number of Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Recommended Violation Defects

SASB 540a.4
540a.4 Frequency of internal railway integrity inspections

SASB 540a.1
SASB 540a.2
SASB 540a.3
SASB 540a.4
Train Accidents8 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Train-Related Incidents and Accidents9 # Accidents 984 768 601 638 670
FRA Train Accident10 # Accidents 51 53 37 33 39
Train vs. Vehicle Fatalities11 # Accidents * 6 4 10 9
Train vs. Vehicle Injuries12 # Accidents * 33 28 29 17
Train-related Accidents Involving the Release of Hazardous Materials13 # Accidents 0 3 1 2 3
Non-Accident Releases of Hazardous Materials14 # Releases 38 21 23 12 24
Grade Crossing Accident Rate15 # Accidents/ Million Train Miles 3.00 2.47 2.81 2.60 2.73
FRA Train Accident Rate16 # Accidents/Million Train Miles 1.26 1.41 1.12 0.99 1.10
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Significant spills

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Significant Spills Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Spill Events17 # Spills 49 27 37 21 34

* CP launched Case Management Application in 2017. This safety management tool has improved our ability to effectively manage critical safety information and conduct deeper trend analysis. Data prior to 2017 for some of these metrics categories is not readily available.

In 2018, CP continued to focus on its Home Safe initiative to improve overall communications and hazard identification amongst all workers. The integration of Home Safe into the CP safety culture has demonstrated positive results as evidenced by the 2018 personal injury rate. In 2019, the initiative has expanded in scope to include safe practices in the home. CP also implemented its critical safety rules initiative, designed to increase awareness and compliance of critical tasks that can lead to catastrophic events.
2 Certain statistical highlights and safety indicators figures have been updated to reflect new information or have been revised to conform with current presentation.
3 Total recordable incident rate (TRIR) is a measure of recordable injuries resulting from a discernable work-related event, to an on-duty employee and is a physical injury in nature (not incident stress or psychological in nature; including fatalities. TRIR is calculated as total number of recordable cases multiplied by 200,000, divided by total employee hours worked during the reporting period. Recordable incidents include all safety-related events reported by employees regardless of incident severity. TRIR was not consistently tracked across the organization prior to 2015.
4 The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) personal injury rate reflects the frequency of personal injuries, multiplied by 200,000, divided by total employee hours. The FRA injury rate is limited to personal injuries that require employees to lose time away from work, modify their normal duties or obtain medical treatment beyond minor first aid. FRA employee hours are the total hours worked, excluding vacation and sick time, by all employees, excluding contractors.
5 CP does not track contractor hours; therefore, cannot calculate total recordable work-related injuries rate.
6 Lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) is an injury that results in calendar days away from work, as recommended by a physician. LTIFR is calculated as total number of injuries that result in an employee losing time away from work, multiplied by 200,000, divided by total man-hours worked during the reporting period.
7 Contract worker fatalities refers to incidents resulting in the death of an employee of a third party service provider, while performing work on behalf of CP.
8 Certain statistical highlights and safety indicators figures have been updated to reflect new information or have been revised to conform with current presentation.
9 A train-related incident or accident is any event that causes damage to mobile on-track equipment during the course of railway operations.
10 Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) reportable train accidents refers to a subset of reported train-related incidents and includes only those events involving damage exceeding a specific monetary value set by the FRA. For 2018 and 2017, this value was US$10,700 and US$10,500 in damage for events occurring from 2014–2016.
11 Incidents involving train and road vehicle collisions that result in a fatality.
12 Incidents involving train and vehicle collisions that result in an injury.
13 Train-related accidents involving the release of hazardous materials are defined as incidents involving the release of hazardous materials (U.S.) or dangerous goods (Canada) from a means of containment during transportation by train.
14 Non-accidental releases are defined as an unintentional release of a hazardous material or dangerous good from a means of containment during transportation. These events do not involve a train-related accident and can result from equipment failure or improperly secured materials.
15 A grade crossing accident is defined as any impact between on-track railway equipment and a highway user at a highway-rail grade crossing. Highway-rail grade crossing means: (1) a location where a public highway, road, street or private roadway, including associated sidewalks, crosses one or more railway tracks at grade; or (2) a location where a pathway explicitly authorized by a public authority or a railway carrier (dedicated for the use of non-vehicular traffic, including pedestrians, bicyclists and others), not associated with a public highway, road, street or private roadway, crosses one or more railway tracks at grade.
16 Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) train accident rate reflects the number of train accidents resulting in damage exceeding a specific monetary threshold (set by FRA), multiplied by 1,000,000, divided by total train miles travelled during the reporting period. Monetary threshold for 2018 and 2017 was US$10,700 and US$10,500 in damage for events occurring from 2014–2016.
17 Spill events includes all reported incidents involving CP employees or contractors, which results in the unintentional release of hazardous materials to the environment. Spills reported only include significant releases, which CP has defined as events where a hazardous material has been released in excess of local regulatory reporting thresholds. Spills include events involving an accidental release, spill or leak, or result from the failure of means of containment.

Operational Excellence

Energy Efficiency & Emissions

Locomotive Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Locomotive Fuel Million U.S. Gallons 275 264 238 248 263
Million Litres 1,042 998 903 939 995
Locomotive Fuel Efficiency1 U.S. Gallons/1,000 GTMs 1.035 0.999 0.980 0.980 0.953
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Energy consumption within the organization

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Energy intensity

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Reduction of energy consumption

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Energy Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Energy Consumption2 1,000 MWh 12,003 11,539 10,401 10,758 11,384
Locomotive Diesel 1,000 MWh 11,016 10,558 9,548 9,939 10,533
Locomotive – Renewable Fuels3 1,000 MWh 166 158 147 149 157
Other Liquid Fuels4 1,000 MWh 375 422 406 357 364
Natural Gas and Propane 1,000 MWh 173 168 117 128 139
Electricity Consumption 1,000 MWh 273 232 183 185 192
Energy Intensity – Total Company kWh/1,000 GTM 44.0 43.8 42.9 42.7 41.3
Energy Intensity – Locomotive Fuel kWh/1,000 GTM 41.0 40.7 39.9 40.0 38.8
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Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions

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Indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions

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Other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions

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GHG emissions intensity

305-5
Reduction of GHG emissions

305-7
Nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur oxides (SOX), and other significant air emissions

SASB 110a.1
110a.1 Gross global Scope 1 emissions

SASB 120a.1
120a.1 Air emissions of the following pollutants: (1) NOx (excluding N2O) and (2) particulate matter (PM)

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SASB 110a.1
SASB 120a.1
Emissions Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total GHG Emissions: Scope 1, 2 and 3 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 3,301 3,165 2,867 2,947 3,118
Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 3,194 3,094 2,797 2,883 3,052
Locomotive 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 3,066 2,953 2,671 2,771 2,936
Other Scope 15 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 128 141 126 112 116
Direct Scope 1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions6
CO2 Emissions 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 2,926.16 2,818.52 2,549.43 2,628.25 2,782.71
CH4 Emissions 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 4.59 4.50 3.98 4.14 4.38
N2O Emissions 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 262.70 269.97 243.67 249.82 264.68
HFC emissions 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 0 0.26 0.09 0.04 0.08
Indirect (Scope 2) GHG Emissions7 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 87 52 53 48 50
Other Indirect (Scope 3) GHG Emissions8 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e 20 20 17 16 16
GHG Emissions Intensity9 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Company (Scope 1, 2 and 3) kg CO2e/1,000 GTM 12.1 12.0 11.8 11.7 11.3
Locomotive (Scope 1) kg CO2e/1,000 GTM 11.2 11.2 11.0 11.0 10.7
Company (Scope 1, 2 and 3) kg CO2e/1,000 RTM 22.0 21.8 21.1 20.7 20.2
Locomotive (Scope 1) kg CO2e/1,000 RTM 20.5 20.3 19.6 19.4 19.0
Company (Scope 1, 2 and 3) kg CO2e/1,000 RTK 15.1 14.9 14.4 14.2 13.8
Locomotive (Scope 1) kg CO2e/1,000 RTK 14.0 13.9 13.5 13.3 13.0
Revenue (Scope 1 and 2) Metric Tons CO2e/$ Million Revenue 496 469 457 447 424
Employee (Scope 1 and 2) Kg CO2e/Employee 228 244 244 241 243
Locomotive Air Emissions10 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Nitrous oxide (NOx) kilotonnes 39.77 37.91 31.73 33.05 34.52
Sulfur oxide (SOx) kilotonnes 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Particulate matter (PM) kilotonnes 0.89 0.81 0.67 0.66 0.70
Hydrocarbons (HC) kilotonnes 1.92 1.78 1.45 1.43 1.51
Carbon monoxide (CO) kilotonnes 7.62 7.35 6.55 6.81 7.17

Asset & Rail Network Resiliency

Performance Metrics Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Average Terminal Dwell Hours 8.7 7.2 6.7 6.6 6.8
Average Network Speed Miles per Hour 18.0 21.4 23.5 22.6 21.5

Environmental Footprint

Environmental Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Provision for Environmental Remediation Programs11 $ Millions 92 95 85 80 82
Annual Spend on Remediation $ Millions 8 17 12 8 7
Environmental Audits Completed # Audits 4 7 4 14 9
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Water consumption

303-5
Water Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Water Consumption12 ML 1,366 1,468 535 557 503
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Waste by type and disposal method

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Hazardous Waste Disposal13, 14 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Hazardous Waste Metric Tons * 3,213 1,742 1,758 2,623
Reuse Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Recycled Metric Tons * 3,137 1,303 1,426 2,588
Compost Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Recovery, including energy recovery Metric Tons * 0 1 0 0
Incineration Metric Tons * 0 14 2 2
Deep well injection Metric Tons * 0 0 0.40 0.02
Landfill Metric Tons * 76 84 21 16
On Site Storage Metric Tons * 0 5.08 0 0.03
Other – Fuel Blending Metric Tons * 0 334 308 17
Nonhazardous Waste Disposal Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Nonhazardous Waste Metric Tons * 109,907 92,126 77,511 101,702
Reuse Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Recycled Metric Tons * 2,527 1,794 9,197 2,268
Compost Metric Tons * 58.69 103.37 65.23 54.65
Recovery, including energy recovery Metric Tons * 99,678 83,121 61,766 92,950
Incineration Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Deep well injection Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Landfill Metric Tons * 7,645 7,066 6,483 6,429
On Site Storage Metric Tons * 0 0 0 0
Other – Fuel Blending Metric Tons * 0 42 0 0
Other Waste Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Rail Ties Sent to Co-generation Facility # Ties 1,012,784 1,206,751 1,006,280 747,774 1,125,619
Rail Ties Sent to Co-generation Facility15 Metric Tons 83,656 99,678 83,072 61,732 92,976
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Materials used by weight or volume

301-1
Resource Consumption Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Steel Products Purchased Metric Tons 143,070 115,583 88,434 71,251 73,101
New Rail Purchases Metric Tons 102,058 91,058 68,972 47,289 51,293
Other Track Materials16 Metric Tons 41,012 24,525 19,462 23,962 21,808
Total Rail Ties Installed 1,000s Rail Ties 1,040 1,009 1,008 1,138 1,015

Supply Chain Management

204-1
Proportion of spending on local suppliers

204-1
Supply Chain Management Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of Suppliers17 # Suppliers 10,147 10,141 9,147 9,427 8,981
Total Supplier Spend $ Millions 3,961 3,940 3,132 3,555 4,042
Spending on Local Suppliers – Canada $ Millions 2,260 2,101 1,659 1,896 2,234
Spending on Local Suppliers – U.S. $ Millions 1,688 1,837 1,471 1,624 1,696
1 Certain statistical highlights and safety indicators figures have been updated to reflect new information or have been revised to conform with current presentation.
2 Total energy consumption includes all liquefied gas, fuels and electricity consumed inside the organization during the reporting year.
3 All diesel fuels supplied to the Canadian marketplace must contain an annual average of 2 percent renewable content. Locomotive – renewable fuels is estimated to be equivalent to 2 percent of all locomotive diesel fuel consumed in Canada during the reporting year.
4 Other liquid fuels includes all liquid and gaseous fuels, excluding locomotive diesel, consumed by the organization during the reporting period. Common fuels reported here includes gasoline, diesel, heating oil, liquid biofuels, propane and natural gas.
5 Other Scope 1 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions includes GHG emissions related to off-road vehicles, vehicle fleet, work equipment and stationary sources such as propane and natural gas for heating facilities.
6 Gas emissions are calculated following The Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (Revised Edition). Total gas emissions are presented as 1,000 Metric Tons CO2e and have been converted following global warming potentials factors from IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).
7 Indirect Scope 2 GHG emissions consists of emissions from electricity. Canadian emissions are based on emissions factors used for Canada's National Inventory Report. U.S emissions are based on the U.S. EPA eGRID 2016 emissions factors. Electricity usage is based on electric utility billing data.
8 Other Indirect Scope 3 GHG emissions includes emissions from travel. Business travel volume is provided by our corporate travel services partners.
9 GHG emissions intensity values presented here represent those most commonly presented or publicly requested within the freight rail sector. Company GHG emissions intensity includes total Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions divided by gross ton-miles (GTMs), revenue ton-miles (RTMs) or revenue tonne-kilometers (RTK) during the reporting period. As locomotive GHG emissions represent approximately 94 percent of all CP emissions, intensity metrics have also been provided.
10 Locomotive air emissions represents common contaminants associated with the combustion of fuels by CP’s locomotive fleet. Calculations are specific to each locomotives’ corresponding EPA emissions tier class. Air emissions are derived by combining CP active locomotive fleet data with EPA tier class emissions factors, total fuel consumed and nature of locomotive use (line haul or switching). This methodology is consistent with practices of the Canadian rail sector and Railway Association of Canada – Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program.
11 Provision for environmental remediation represents an estimate of probable future obligation and includes both asserted and unasserted claims, without reduction for anticipated recoveries from third parties. Although the recorded accruals include CP’s best estimate of all probable costs, CP’s total environmental remediation costs cannot be predicted with certainty. Accruals for environmental remediation may change periodically as new information about previously untested sites becomes known, environmental laws and regulations evolve, and advances are made in environmental remediation technology.
12 Water consumption volumes are based on metered service connections to municipal water treatment and distribution systems supplied to CP facilities across the network. These values do not reflect a small amount of unmetered water supplied by local wells at remote operating locations.
13 Definitions of hazardous and non-hazardous waste are aligned with Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Waste disposal methods and associated quantities are provided to us by our third party waste disposal contractors, and tracked by CP's third party consultant. CP works collaboratively with our third party waste contractors to identify beneficial reuse and recycling options for our industrial waste streams. Hazardous and non-hazardous waste was not tracked accurately prior to 2015.
14 Waste was not tracked prior to 2015.
15 Annual volumes of rail ties sent to cogeneration facilities are also included in the non-hazardous waste disposal table reported as waste sent for recovery, including energy recovery.
16 Other track materials includes anchors, spikes, screw spikes, rail clip fasteners, tie plates and track bolts.
17 Number of suppliers refers to all suppliers which have a transaction against their account in the reporting year regardless of a payment volume.

Social Impact

Diversity & Inclusion

405-1
Diversity of governance bodies and employees

405-1
Employee Composition Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Gender
Women  % Employees 9.1 9.5 9.4 9.5 9.5
Men  % Employees 90.9 90.5 90.6 90.5 90.5
Age
Under 30 Years Old  % Employees 15.5 14.2 14.1 16.2 17.7
30–50 Years Old  % Employees 49.0 50.2 52.5 52.7 54.0
Over 50 Years Old  % Employees 35.5 34.8 33.5 31.2 28.3
Gender & Age by Management Level1
Sr. Executive Management # Employees 88 81 75 80 85
Women % Sr. Exec. Employees 12.5 9.9 14.7 18.8 18.8
Men % Sr. Exec. Employees 87.5 90.1 85.3 81.3 81.2
Under 30 Years Old  % Sr. Exec. Employees 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0
30–50 Years Old  % Sr. Exec. Employees 52.3 50.6 53.3 56.3 61.2
Over 50 Years Old % Sr. Exec. Employees 47.7 48.1 46.7 43.8 38.8
Management # Employees 3,368 3,144 2,820 2,912 3,072
Women % Management Employees 22.2 22.7 22.6 22.6 21.9
Men % Management Employees 77.8 77.3 77.4 77.4 78.1
Under 30 Years Old % Management Employees 9.5 8.8 8.5 9.8 10.5
30–50 Years Old  % Management Employees 53.5 57.3 59.4 59.8 63.1
Over 50 Years Old % Management Employees 34.7 33.9 32.1 30.4 26.4
Non-Management # Employees 10,799 9,592 8,758 9,171 9,613
Women % Non-management Employees 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.3 5.4
Men % Non-management Employees 95.0 94.8 95.1 94.7 94.6
Under 30 Years Old % Non-management Employees 17.5 16.4 16.0 18.3 20.5
30–50 Years Old  % Non-management Employees 47.2 48.4 50.2 50.4 54.4
Over 50 Years Old % Non-management Employees 35.3 35.3 33.8 31.3 25.1
Other Diversity Metrics2
Canada
Women % Cdn Employees 10.3 10.7 10.6 10.7 10.8
Aboriginal3 % Cdn Employees 3.7 3.3 3.4 4.0 4.2
Persons with Disabilities4 % Cdn Employees 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.7 2.4
Visible Minorities5 % Cdn Employees 7.3 8.4 8.5 10.3 10.8
U.S.
Women % U.S. Employees 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.3 4.8
Persons with Disabilities4  % U.S. Employees * 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.6
Visible Minorities5 % U.S. Employees * 11.5 11.3 12.5 12.5
102-38
Annual total compensation ratio

102-38
Ratio of Compensation of the Highest Paid Individual to the Average Employee6 Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Company7 $ Highest Paid: $ Average Employee 78 104 143 65 79
Canada8 $ Highest Paid: $ Average Employee 14 13 10 11 12
U.S.9 $ Highest Paid: $ Average Employee 32 109 35 23 19
401-1
New employee hires and employee turnover

401-1
New Hires Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Positions Hired # Positions 1,946 1,799 1,775 3,160 4,181
New Hires  # Employees 1,674 1,233 674 1,657 2,402
Internal Hires10 # Employees 272 566 1,101 1,503 1,779
Rate of Internal Hires % Total Positions Hired 14.0 31.5 62.0 47.6 42.5
Gender
Women  % New Employees 9.1 10.1 13.8 11.3 9.6
Men  % New Employees 90.9 89.9 86.2 88.7 90.4
Age
Under 30 Years Old  % New Employees 47.6 45.5 42.1 47.4 44.7
30–50 Years Old  % New Employees 45.7 47.8 50.3 45.0 48.3
Over 50 Years Old  % New Employees 6.8 6.7 7.6 7.6 7.0
Region
Canada  % New Employees 65.5 70.6 82.2 80.9 78.6
U.S.  % New Employees 34.5 29.4 17.8 19.1 21.4
Employee Turnover  Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Total Employee Turnover11 # Employees 2,638 2,537 2,146 1,729 1,785
Employee Turnover Rate12 % Total Employees 18.5 19.8 18.4 14.2 14.0
Voluntary Employee Turnover Rate13 % Total Employees 9.3 8.2 7.7 6.5 7.0
Gender Turnover Rate
Women  % Female Employees 20.5 18.8 17.7 13.6 15.7
Men  % Male Employees 18.3 19.9 18.5 14.3 13.8
Turnover Rate by Age
Under 30 Years Old  % Age Class 23.9 23.2 16.6 12.8 16.4
30–50 Years Old  % Age Class 13.5 13.5 13.0 10.4 10.0
Over 50 Years Old  % Age Class 23.1 27.6 27.6 21.5 20.0
Turnover Rate by Region
Canada  % Regional Employees 17.1 19.1 18.2 14.2 13.7
United States  % Regional Employees 22.8 21.9 19.3 14.2 15.0

Community Investment

 Investments and Donations Units 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Canada
Community Investments by CP $ CAD 19,441,195 4,007,200 4,807,029 4,604,679 4,000,947
Monetary Donations by CP $ CAD 3,206,910 3,727,100 4,494,260 4,470,664 3,617,418
In-Kind Donations by CP $ CAD 16,234,285 280,100 312,769 134,015 383,529
Community & Employee Donations – CP Led $ CAD 597,546 820,774 1,055,163 1,493,153 1,367,233
U.S.
Community Investments by CP $ USD 475,878 453,606 442,768 475,240 415,086
Monetary Donations by CP $ USD 475,878 426,625 442,768 452,804 415,086
In-Kind Donations $ USD 0 26,981 0 22,436 0
Community & Employee Donations – CP Led $ USD 295,140 304,098 224,297 295,354 303,459
1 Senior executive management at CP includes all EVP, AVP, Chief, General Counsel, GM, Managing Director, SVP and VP positions. Management is defined as all non-union employees, excluding senior executive managers. Non-management is defined as all unionized employees.
2 Other workforce diversity metrics is based on self-identification of employee status at CP.
3 Aboriginal is defined as all First Nations, Inuit, Métis and North American Indian peoples. These metrics are not tracked in the U.S.
4 Persons with disabilities defines individuals who have a long-term or recurring physical, mental, sensory, psychiatric or learning impairment and who (a) consider themselves to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment, or (b) believe that an employer or potential employer is likely to consider them to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment, and includes persons whose functional limitations owing to their impairment have been accommodated in their current job or workplace. Prior to 2015, these metrics were not tracked for our U.S. operations.
5 Visible minorities defines “persons, other than Aboriginal, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.” Categories in the visible minorities variable include South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean, Japanese, visible minorities not included elsewhere, multiple visible minorities and not a visible minority. Prior to 2015, these metrics were not tracked for our U.S. operations.
6 Ratio of compensation includes all base salary, overtime pay, sales incentive pay, short-term incentive pay and long-term incentive pay. Compensation for all withdrawn employees, retirees, people on leave of absence, students, Co-op Program participants, part time, fixed term, contractors and individuals who worked part of the year are not included in this calculation.
7 Ratio of highest paid (CEO) to average CP employee compensation.
8 Ratio of highest paid in Canada, excluding CEO to average Canadian employee compensation.
9 Ratio of highest paid in the U.S., excluding CEO to average U.S. employee compensation.
10 Internal hires is defined as an existing employee moving to a new position within the company during the reporting year from Jan. 1 – Dec. 31. This includes all promotions and lateral position moves.
11 Total employee turnover refers to the number of workers who left CP during the reporting period. This includes voluntary and non-voluntary terminations, and does not include retirements. The higher turnover rate from 2014–2016 was primarily due to job reductions as a result of continued strong operational performance, natural attrition and fewer contractors.
12 Employee turnover rate is calculated as total turnover by employee category divided by the total number of employees in each category.
13 Voluntary employee turnover rate refers to employees who leave the company of their own volition, and does not include departures due to retirement. Calculated as total voluntary turnover divided by total number of employees.

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